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What is Pluto?
Pluto is a decentralized scholarly communication platform powered by ethereum blockchain. Following guiding rules are set forth, to help make decisions in designing details in any aspect of Pluto platfor. 1. All actions and transactions on the platform are transparently open to the public. 2. All rights associated with any work on the platform are reserved by the original author. 3. All activities on the platform are compensated according to the contribution. 4. All major decisions on the platform are made by the consensus of participants.
What is Pluto's vision?
Pluto aims to advance the way academia works with following vision: Pluto makes scholarly communication reasonable and transparent, independent from capital, authority, and centralization.
What are the advances of Pluto in comparison to other tools for scholarly communication?
Pluto deals with all phases of research cycle. We integrate the whole transactions involved in entire research industry. By utilizing blockchain technology, all actions and transactions on the platform are transparently open to the public and manipulation-free. Reasonable rewarding system implemented by the smart contract system of ethereum motivates participation and meaningful contribution to the platform.
What is a PLT token and how does it work?
PLT is an ERC20 token based on ethereum blockchain powered by smart contract technology. PLT is a utility token used for all economic activities in Pluto platform.Token usage example: -Peer review compensation -On-demand inquiries -Resource allocation (Fund allocation, Equipment, facility allocation)
How is blockchain technology used in Pluto platform?
Blockchain is a distributed ledger technology where nodes of the network grows a common chain of data with a consensus protocol. It is the underlying technology of cryptocurrencies, and it is highly valued recently as it is considered the next generation technology which will innovate the most of existing business and industry models.Blockchain, as a completely distributed network model without a central point, has several properties: Decentralized, Transparent, Secure, Immutable. Pluto platform implemented on blockchain having those properties will make a scholarly community with unprecedented transparency and security ensured.
What problems does Pluto solve?
Large publishers oligopolizing the market with their past influence have generated excessive commercial profits in scholarly communications. High subscription fees, submission fee and APC created access barriers to research achievements. Moreover, publication bias and performance focused evaluation system hindered information sharing and communication among researchers, resulting in duplicated experiments. Publication procedures without profound standard waste a lot of time and resources. Researchers are having trouble in getting research funding due to structural problems. These problems can be solved in Pluto platform by making academic communication transparent and independent from centralized authority.
What are the functions of the Pluto platform?
Pluto deals with all kinds of value transfers throughout a research lifecycle. Platform's key features include dissemination of research achievement, open public review with proper compensation, reasonable reputation system independent from journals, mani-free on-demand inquiries, and efficient allocation of reserach resources such as research funds and equipment.
What is a reputation score and how is it calculated?
Reputations of researchers are based on their actions and contributions recorded on the platform, and the detailed formula will be always transparently recorded as a core protocol of the platform. +
How research achievement is evaluated / calculation of score
Evaluation of research achievements shared on Pluto is conduced in a public peer review model, meaning any participant on the platform can review. Reviewers can give quantitative and qualitative evaluation. Quantitative evaluation is given as a score of 10 for each categories. Final evaluation score is calculated as an average of all quantitative review it receives, weighted by the reputation of each reviewer at the time of reviewing. Further information is stated in chapter 4.4.2 of our whitepaper.
What is proof of concept prototype of Pluto?
A Proof-of-Concept prototype will be launched in October 2017, where Cryptocurrency related research articles, whitepapers, and technical blogs will be shared and evaluated.
What is scholarly communication?
Scholarly communication is defined as a system that creates and evaluates research and other scholarly documents, distributes them to academics, and preserves them for future use. Major activities within the scholarly communication include research idea discovery and hypothesis generation, research fund approval, research(experiment), and dissemination of results. Further information is stated in chapter 2.1 of our whitepaper.
What is peer review?
In traditional journal publication model, when an author submits a paper to a journal, the editor of the journal requests the peer reviewers to evaluate it. In general, two or three researchers in the same field will examine various aspects such as the scientific value of the paper or whether the hypotheses and results are aligned properly. Usually reviewers are anonymous from the author, which causes serious problems like manipulation and low quality of reviews. Pluto aims to solve problems in current peer review model by introducing public peer review model, meaning any participant on the platform can review and every information in review process is transparently recorded by using blockchain technology.
Why ethereum?
Ethereum network’s “Smart Contract” feature gives one of the most promising functionality of blockchain technology: Programmable. A reasonable rewarding system can be implemented utilizing the smart contract system of Ethereum network. This reward system will properly credit the academic activities both economically and in reputation which were previously not incentivized well under the name of “voluntary work”.
For profit?
Pluto platform is not for profit.
Token distribution for reviewers
Authors decide the amount of tokens to pay for the peer review process. Since reviews become public after certain conditions are met, reviewing period is devided into Blind and Public Period. Only reviewers who evaluated during the Blind period will be compensated with tokens, and reputation score will be given to reviewers in all period. Tokens staked by authors are distributed to reviewers, weighted by reputation of the reviewer and how close their quantitative evaluation is to the final evaluation at the end of Blind period which is similar to prediction market model.

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